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period, although this does not mean that it is possible to date each borrowing precisely. vocabulary, even though they are attested by only a few words, seem to belong to the time before Macedonian and Seleucid rule over Iran, i. chiefly to Achaemenid times, when Armenia was under Iranian domination but not yet thoroughly Iranianized (see Meillet, 1911/12, pp. The order followed is that of the Armenian alphabet. These borrowings from the Iranian religious vocabulary did not occur as a result of the close Irano-Armenian symbiosis during the Arsacid period. The terminology involved is not connected with any particular religious ideas such as those of Zoroastrianism but reflects the religious notions current among the people at large as is revealed by the fact that in the Bible translation even the disciples of Christ and the angels were designated by two terms of Iranian provenance: ), and even numerals, adverbs, and other indeclinables, may be carried out in different ways. During that period the culture of the Parthian feudal aristocracy, being superior to that of the Armenians, exerted profound influence on them. Moreover, Périkhanian considered that many of the Northwest-Ir. This approach appears to be correct in principle but it is difficult to work out the details because of the scanty evidence available for the older Iranian dialects. The most likely explanation seems to be Henning’s proposal (1958, p. Sometimes a long series of compounds of the same kind was borrowed and through imitation of such models (analogy) certain first or second compositional elements were reduced to the status of mere prefixes or suffixes, which could be attached to inherited as well as to borrowed words. The vast extent of this borrowing process reflects once again the fact that there were over the ages often very close historical and cultural contacts between these two countries and peoples.; Modern research in this field began with Hübschmann, who compiled a list of 217 entries concerned with Iranian names found in Armenian sources: see the first section of his grammar, 1897, pp. His list was necessarily far from complete and his interpretations are by no means final but his work has had a kind of monopoly until the present day. Accordingly, most of the linguistic borrowings came into Armenian from the Northwest Iranian language of the Parthians in a way comparable to the overwhelming French influence on English after the Norman conquest. lexicology and lexicography as it contains many words, some of which survive right down to the present day, not attested in the Ir. loanwords in Armenian that are usually regarded as being from Parthian, are to be attributed in fact to an older stratum, a “Middle Median,” layer, although these words presented none of those peculiarly Med. Similar problems are presented by the connections between Armenian and East Iranian languages, which have been remarked on repeatedly since Gauthiot 1916. 93) that we have to do here with elements of the so-called “Parnian” language, the virtually unknown language of the East Iranian conquerors of Parthia, which was brought to Parthia by the Parni but abandoned in favor of Parthian after it had been enriched by East Iranian elements. “Law of final syllables.” The nominal compounds of Ir. Having thus become grammaticalized, they became productive. These are mostly technical terms from geographical and botanical literature, as “Chinese wood.” Clearly this was merely a lexical process and the construction as such has no morphological function in Armenian. In Hübschmann’s list as well as in Ačaṟyan’s onomasticon (Ačaṟyan, 1942-1962) and in Nalbandyan’s dissertation, no distinction is made between two groups of names which should in fact have been kept separate. borrowings in Armenian (see details in Schmitt, 1975). words that had previously been unexplained or regarded as IE. words which Hübschmann could only suspect on the basis of their sound of being of Iranian origin (see Bolognesi, 1966, pp. Moreover, a number of words that Hübschmann had regarded as inherited IE. dialectological characteristics show the majority of the Arm. layer of loanwords contains mainly technical terms of the military and administration, of jurisdiction and trade, titles or professional designations, and names of all kinds. b) The Arsacid loanwords are usually well attested both in the oldest texts (the Bible translation) and later throughout all literary genres, whereas the Sasanian loanwords are mostly isolated hapax legomena confined to certain authors and often occur in a typically Persian context. languages, in particular all the Arsacid Parthian loans, can not be assigned to one single homogeneous stratum. dialectology has increased the number of these distinctive features substantially. Thus, we find side by side the learned “book word” . loanwords in Georgian are nowhere nearly as important as those in Armenian. languages or dialects, as seems to have been the case in Arsacid times, or by way of Armenian, as can sometimes be proved on phonological grounds. (Studies in Iranian-Georgian linguistic contacts) I, Tbilisi, 1966. 15) assigned these borrowings to the period after the eleventh century. There foreign names were often adopted first by the nobles because of the splendor and pomp attaching to them and only afterwards by the common people imitating them. names of Armenians, but also suffers from several inconsistencies, the most serious of which is that he has in mind in each case primarily the linguistic stage of Ir. Some of the old pre-Armenian geographical names (toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms, etc.) were apparently replaced by modern names in the course of time. words into Armenian from the Arsacid period on, many of the geographical names newly created by the Armenians also contain Ir. See above for names ending in -) (Armenian personal names of Iranian origin, cultural-historical, etymological studies), Avtoreferat dissertatsii, Tbilisi, 1971. Schmitt, “Empfehlungen zur Transliteration der armenischen Schrift,” , N. Still today we are indebted to the one volume that was published of his (Hübschmann, 1897, pp. Bolognesi, and many others (see the articles cited in the select bibliography) have proved by means of Ir. words in Armenian, have in the meantime been identified, or at least claimed as Iranian loanwords (see Bolognesi, 1966, pp. 27f.), even if the last word has not yet been said in some cases: “distant.” Here the important point is that where the phonological development is parallel in both Parthian (or Iranian) and Armenian, it is not always possible to be certain whether a word is borrowed or inherited. borrowings to have come through Parthian (see especially Benveniste, 1957/ and Bolognesi, 1960). They must be examined more closely and the following points must be taken into account: a) Among the Arsacid loans there are words belonging to the basic vocabulary of everyday life in all its aspects including many adjectives, such as “better,” and others denoting colors, even though adjectives are not usually borrowed as readily as substantives. c) Only the Arsacid borrowings were still productive in Armenian so that new words, derivatives as well as compounds, could be formed from them. This was proved definitively by Bolognesi, 1951, who was able to advance beyond the work of Hübschmann by postulating on the basis of different phonological representations (such as Arm. Armenian played a similar role in connection with the neighboring languages in the north, especially Georgian. loanwords occur in Old Georgian literature from the fifth century A. After the fall of the Sasanian empire in the middle of the seventh century A. the Armenians came for a long period under the influence of Islamic masters (Arabs, Saljuqs, Mongols, and Ottomans), but that foreign rule did not greatly affect Armenian culture and language since the Armenians remained firmly Christian. In general they are limited to later, specialized or technical literature that has in many cases been translated from the donor languages. In other cases a more exact chronological classification is difficult or impossible because of the lack of decisive evidence. The Arsacids ruling in Armenia of course never abandoned their onomastic tradition, not even after becoming Christians. for which the name concerned is attested for the first time even when the Arm. times such as the three-stem formations based upon secondary composition or the “theophoric dummy dvandvas” of the ), which resulted from the secondary juxtaposition of two divine names.
Junker’s interest in exotic scripts and in languages in general inspired him to take up Iranian studies. letters are here transliterated according to the system proposed by Schmitt, 1972: a b g d e z ê ə ṭʿ ž i l x c k h j ł č m y n š o čʿ p ǰ ṟ s v t r cʿ w pʿ kʿ ô f, and the digraph ow for [u]. In ancient times the name “Armenia” designated the entire highland, which in spite of all political and historical changes in the course of time such as the temporary separation of certain districts or even the complete disintegration of the country, was defined by the Taurus mountains in the south, the upper Euphrates River in the west, the Caucasus mountains in the north, and Media Atropatene, the modern Azerbaijan in the east. simply placed on the Armenian throne his younger brother Tiridates (Trdat) I, who had been acknowledged by the Romans in the treaty of Rhandeia in 63 and who had finally been crowned by Emperor Nero himself in 66 A. For several centuries thereafter Armenia was ruled by a Parthian aristocracy, who exerted considerable influence.Apart from interruptions of varying duration Armenian was to bear the yoke of the respective Iranian leading power for more than a thousand years, for after the Medes followed the Persian Achaemenids (550-330 B. Licinius Lucullus had marched against Tigranes during the third Mithridatian War and this king had submitted himself to Pompeius in 66 B. The Roman protectorate was followed by the rule of a younger line of the Parthian Arsacids (Arm. D.), until the Armenian apple of discord was finally divided between Romans and Sasanians in 387 A. Bailey) Originally Published: December 15, 1986 Last Updated: August 12, 2011 This article is available in print. Mesrop Maštocʿ) and which is characterized from the very beginning of the literary documentation by a large number of Iranian loanwords. Since these Armenian highlands had been subdued by Cyaxares about 600 B. and so had become part of the Median Empire, the conditions had been provided for the intensive influence of Iranian culture and customs on the Armenians and their language. The independence of Armenia from the Seleucids was not gained until 189 B. The Armenian kingdom, whose power and size had been enlarged considerably in particular by king Tigranes I called the Great (ca. C.), had become a bone of contention between the Parthians and the Roman Empire (see Chaumont, 1976) ever since L. Though the Christianization of Armenia in the third century and its rise to Armenian official religion shortly after 300 A. loosened the close ties between Iranians and Armenians, ties that had until then been close even in matters of creed, little changed in the political situation even under the Sasanians (who ruled over Iran from 224 A. General ARMENIAN, the language of the Armenians, which is attested in written sources since the 5th century A. (after the invention of the Armenian alphabet by St. In some parts of the area the Armenians constituted the majority of the population, in others only its upper classes, but they were everywhere the unifying element that maintained the culture and language of the whole region. D., again except the short period of Roman occupation under Trajan. Indeed, the Parthian aristocracy was emulated by the Armenians, especially the upper classes, who necessarily had a command of both Parthian and Armenian, and who even tried to join through marriage with the new true masters of their country.